Описание: Radioactivity - the breakdown of unstable atomic nuclei, releasing radiation - is a fundamental process in nature, and used to provide important applications in science, medicine, and energy production. But it remains misunderstood and feared. In this Very Short Introduction, Claudio Tuniz explains the nature and mechanisms of radioactivity.
Автор: Michael F. L`Annunziata Название: Radioactivity ISBN: 0444634894 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780444634894 Издательство: Elsevier Science Рейтинг: Цена: 16662 р. 18513.00-10% Наличие на складе: Нет в наличии.
Описание: A recipient of the PROSE 2017 Honorable Mention in Chemistry & Physics, Radioactivity: Introduction and History, From the Quantum to Quarks, Second Edition provides a greatly expanded overview of radioactivity from natural and artificial sources on earth, radiation of cosmic origins, and an introduction to the atom and its nucleus. The book also includes historical accounts of the lives, works, and major achievements of many famous pioneers and Nobel Laureates from 1895 to the present. These leaders in the field have contributed to our knowledge of the science of the atom, its nucleus, nuclear decay, and subatomic particles that are part of our current knowledge of the structure of matter, including the role of quarks, leptons, and the bosons (force carriers). Users will find a completely revised and greatly expanded text that includes all new material that further describes the significant historical events on the topic dating from the 1950s to the present.
Автор: Grupen Название: Radioactivity and Radiation ISBN: 3319423290 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783319423296 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 3932 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This book lays the foundations for you to understand all that you always wanted to know about radioactivity. It begins by setting out essential information about the structure of matter, how radiation occurs and how it can be measured. It goes on to explore the substantial benefits of radioactivity through its many applications, and also the possible risks associated with its use.The field of radioactivity is explained in layman’s terms, so that everybody who is interested can improve their understanding of issues such as nuclear power, radiation accidents, medical applications of radiation and radioactivity from the environment.Everything is radioactive. There is natural radioactivity in the homes that we live in, the food that we eat and the air that we breath. For over 100 years, people have recognised the potential for radioactivity to help solve problems and improve our standard of living. This has led to the creation of radioactivity levels in some places that are much higher than naturally-occurring background levels. Such high levels of radiation can be harmful to people and the environment, so there is a clear need to manage this potential harm and to make the risk worth the benefits mankind can achieve from radioactive materials.
Описание: Density functional theory (DFT) has become a major technique in quantum chemical calculations. In particular, its very good "price/performance" ratio has attracted a lot of attention to DFT. There is now an ever growing number of DFT applications in the computational chemistry literature.
Описание: This comprehensive volume surveys the general aspects of atomic cluster science and outlines some of its important new challenges. It begins by detailing the
recent advances in the understanding of structure and the essential properties of selected atomic cluster systems, fullerenes and confined atoms. Recent advances in the field of photo
processes involving atomic clusters and fullerenes are discussed, and an entire chapter is devoted to the problem of fission dynamics of atomic clusters, presenting parallels with similar
processes in nuclear physics.
The book goes on to describe the problems of electron-cluster collisions with special emphasis on polarization and collective excitation effects.
The important area of the behavior of atomic clusters in laser fields is considered; the ionization, collective dynamics of electrons in the system in the presence of the laser field, and the
laser induced dynamics of molecules and clusters are thoroughly described. Finally, a broad spectrum of problems in the area of ionic collisions with fullerenes and metal clusters is
covered -- from both experimental and theoretical points of view -- and the results of the most recent measurements are reported.
chapter takes a careful look at the interaction of an atomic cluster with a surface. The problems of cluster deposition and formation at a surface as well as collision processes involving
clusters deposited at a surface are considered through a number of illustrative examples.
Автор: Per-Olov Lowden Название: Advances in Density Functional Theory,33 ISBN: 0120348322 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780120348329 Издательство: Elsevier Science Рейтинг: Цена: 18700 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This volume presents a summary of density functional theory and its applications in chemistry from atomic physics to molecular dynamics.
Автор: Sahni Viraht Название: Quantal Density Functional Theory ISBN: 3540408843 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783540408840 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 11215 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Quantal density functional theory (Q-DFT) is a new local effective potential energy theory of the electronic structure of matter. It is a description in terms of classical fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of the many-body electron correlations present in such a description, namely, those due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, and correlation-current-density effects. The book further describes SchrГ¶dinger theory from the new perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also explains the physics underlying the functionals and functional derivatives of traditional DFT.
Описание: This volume records the proceedings of a Forum attended by many leading researchers working in the field of Electron Density, Density Matrix and Density Functional Theory held at the Coseners' House, Abingdon-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, UK in early summer 2002. It has long been recognized that "All the necessary information required for the energy and for calculating the properties of molecules is embodied in the first- and second-order density matrices". The wave function contains much more information than is required to yield the energy or other property. But the density matrices must correspond to some physically acceptable wave function. Coleman, one of the distinguished participants in the Forum, has dubbed this "Coulson's challenge". His paper describing recent work on the N-representability problem is included in this volume. McWeeny discusses some unsolved problems in density matrix theory and density functional theory; and Bader discusses the use of the electron density in explaining the structure and properties of atoms and molecules. Density Functional Theory is widely used in studies of molecular and solid state systems. Yet the theoretical apparatus for this approach remains under active development. Theophilou describes a new formulation of density functional theory. Gross and his coworkers present a time-dependent theory for molecules in strong laser pulses. Nagy considers pair density functional theory, while Ludena and his colleagues examine functional N-representability in density matrix and density functional theory. The meeting concluded with a Forum, ably chaired by B.T. Sutcliffe, in which the latest research and results were discussed. A record of this Forum is included in this volume. This book will be of value to researchers and research students in theoretical chemistry and theoretical physics whose work involves the theoretical study of atoms, molecules and the solid state. It will be of interest to quantum chemists and solid state physicists, to materials scientists and applied mathematicians.
Описание: The basic goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, including its sources and applications. In principle, there are two sources of environmental radioactivity, namely man-made and natural. The authors of this book set out to analyze mainly empirical aspects of the activities of both groups. On one hand, a detailed analysis of the sources releasing radionuclides into the environment by human activities should, while describing environmental pollution and its dangers, contribute to its decrease in the future. On the other hand, the analyses of natural radionuclides, as well as their influences and use in different fields, serve to complete an evaluation of the present state of environmental radioactivity. All auxiliary parts (e.g., principles of radionuclide analyses) are included to the extent necessary for understanding the basic themes.The many recent examples contained in the book will be useful in studying various problems of radioactivity in the present environment, and can help, not only in preparing, carrying out and evaluating outdoor and laboratory experiments, but also in protection of the environment and human health through analyses of possible sources of radioactive pollution.Audience: This book can be used by research workers, university professors and students in scientific and technological disciplines (e.g., nuclear physics and engineering, radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry, geology, hydrology, and archaeology), and by those involved in environmental protection and control in the nuclear industry (including nuclear weapons and nuclear safety).
Автор: Vlado Valkovic Название: Radioactivity in the Environment, ISBN: 0444829547 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780444829542 Издательство: Elsevier Science Рейтинг: Цена: 41608 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population, one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. This book aims to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made.
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