Описание: Diffraction Analysis of the Microstructure of Materials provides an overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.
Описание: Examines the state of the art for determining the "real" structure of matter. This book provides an analysis of the fundamental theory and techniques for microstructure analysis from diffraction patterns. It presents the principal characterization technique permitting us to measure the defect solid state: X-ray diffraction.
Описание: Over recent years the understanding of grain boundaries, interphase boundaries and free surfaces has advanced greatly, leading to a clear recognition that these discontinuities make a significant contribution to the physical and mechanical properties of materials from multiphametals and alloys to electronic materials. Grain Boundaries -Their Microstructure and Chemistry discusses the interrelationship between microstructure and chemistry of the grain boundary, with particular emphasis on the influence of the environment (air, liquid and liquid metal) and composition (bulk and impurity). This highly practical volume presents a brief background to interphase and grain boundaries, before considering in detail grain boundary composition and composition changes, and how grain boundary composition affects material properties. Very recent advances in techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe, and the facinating new insights into grain boundary, microstructure that they have revealed, are also discussed. Grain Boundaries - Their Microstructure and Chemistry is an indispensable text for design and safety engineers in many industries, including power and aerospace, as well as for materials scientists and engineers in academia and research institutes.
Описание: Crystal structure analysis from powder diffraction data has attracted considerable and ever growing interest in the last decades. X-ray powder diffraction is best known for phase analysis (Hanawalt files) dating back to the 30s. In the late 60s the inherent potential of powder diffraction for crystallographic problems was realized and scientists developed methods for using powder diffraction data at first only for the refinement of crystal structures. With the development of ever growing computer power profile fitting and pattern decomposition allowed to extract individual intensities from overlapping diffraction peaks opening the way to many other applications, especially to ab initio structure determination. Powder diffraction today is used in X-ray and neutron diffraction, where it is a powerful method in neutron diffraction for the determination of magnetic structures. In the last decade the interest has dramatically improved. There is hardly any field of crystallography where the Rietveld, or full pattern method has not been tried with quantitative phase analysis the most important recent application.
Автор: Barone Vincenzo, Predazzi Enrico Название: High-Energy Particle Diffraction ISBN: 3540421076 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783540421078 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 12696 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron--hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the "new diffraction": the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers.
Описание: The thoroughly updated Laboratory Manual: Minerals and Rocks: Exercises in Crystal and Mineral Chemistry, Crystallography, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Mineral and Rock Identification, and Ore Mineralogy, 3e, is for use in the mineralogy laboratory and covers the subject matter in the same sequence as the Manual of Mineral Science, 23e. .
Описание: This book presents a physical approach to the diffraction phenomenon and its applications in materials science. An historical background to the discovery of X-ray diffraction is first outlined. Next, Part 1 gives a description of the physical phenomenon of X-ray diffraction on perfect and imperfect crystals. Part 2 then provides a detailed analysis of the instruments used for the characterization of powdered materials or thin films. The description of the processing of measured signals and their results is also covered, as are recent developments relating to quantitative microstructural analysis of powders or epitaxial thin films on the basis of X-ray diffraction. Given the comprehensive coverage offered by this title, anyone involved in the field of X-ray diffraction and its applications will find this of great use.
Автор: Authier, Andre (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Название: Dynamical Theory of X-ray Diffraction ISBN: 0198528922 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780198528920 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 11504 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Talks about the dynamical diffraction of X-rays since the development of synchrotron radiation. This illustrated book explains the detailed development of the diffraction and propagation properties of x-rays in perfect crystals. It also gives three applications of the theory of diffraction. It is for graduate students, lecturers and researchers.
Описание: The main theme of this book is micromagnetism and microstructure as well as the analysis of the relations between characteristic properties of the hysteresis loop and microstructure. Also presented is an analysis of the role of microstructure in the fundamental magnetic properties (for example magnetorestriction or critical behaviour) of crystalline and amorphous alloys. The authors apply the theory of micromagnetism to all aspects of advanced magnetic materials including domain patterns and magnetization processes under the influence of defect structures. Coverage includes modern developments in computational micromagnetism and its application to spin structures of small particles and platelets. It will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in condensed matter, physics, electrical engineering and materials science, as well as to industrial researchers working in the electrotechnical and recording industry.
Описание: Phase transformations in solids typically lead to surprising mechanical behaviour with far reaching technological applications. The mathematical modeling of these transformations in the late 80s initiated a new field of research in applied mathematics, often referred to as mathematical materials science, with deep connections to the calculus of variations and the theory of partial differential equations. This volume gives a brief introduction to the essential physical background, in particular for shape memory alloys and a special class of polymers (nematic elastomers). Then the underlying mathematical concepts are presented with a strong emphasis on the importance of quasiconvex hulls of sets for experiments, analytical approaches, and numerical simulations.
Автор: Kasai Название: X-Ray Diffraction by Macromolecules ISBN: 3540253173 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783540253174 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 9922 р. Наличие на складе: Нет в наличии.
Описание: The audience for this thorough overview includes advanced undergraduates and postgraduate researchers in macromolecular sciences who can benefit from more familiarity with the use of X-ray diffraction for obtaining structural information on biological substances, natural and synthetic high polymeric materials. X-Ray Diffraction by Macromolecules comprises three parts: fundamental, experimental and analytical, and the volume as a whole may serve as an intermediate textbook to bridge the treatments found in primers and specialist works. It presents a thorough treatment of principles and applications, and gives full, practical details on experimental methods and the treatment of results, along with many examples of actual analysis.
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