Автор: Church, Alonzo Название: Introduction to mathematical logic ISBN: 0691029067 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780691029061 Издательство: Wiley Рейтинг: Цена: 12705 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Logic is sometimes called the foundation of mathematics: the logician studies the kinds of reasoning used in the individual steps of a proof. Alonzo Church`s contributions to number theory and theories of algorithms and computability laid the theoretical foundations of computer science. This book is a basic source for understanding formal logic.
Описание: This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises.Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.
Описание: Provides an introduction to the theory of linear systems and control for students in business mathematics, econometrics, computer science, and engineering. This book focuses on discrete time systems, which are the most relevant in business applications, as opposed to continuous time systems, requiring less mathematical preliminaries.
Автор: Awodey, Steve Название: Introduction to Category Theory (Paperback) ISBN: 0199237182 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780199237180 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 8223 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Suitable for undergraduates in mathematics, researchers and graduates in computer science.
Описание: The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams,duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories,particularly comma categories and hom-set categories.
Автор: Taylor, John R. Название: Introduction to error analysis ISBN: 093570275X ISBN-13(EAN): 9780935702750 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 7424 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This text introduces error analysis through simple and familiar examples from carpentry and well-known historic experiments where an understanding of errors was crucial to the success of the experiment. It is designed as a reference for students in the physical sciences and engineering.
Описание: This is a book about modelling, analysis and control of linear time- invariant systems. The book uses what is called the behavioral approach towards mathematical modelling. Thus a system is viewed as a dynamical relation between manifest and latent variables. The emphasis is on dynamical systems that are represented by systems of linear constant coefficients. In the first part of the book the structure of the set of trajectories that such dynamical systems generate is analyzed. Conditions are obtained for two systems of differential equations to be equivalent in the sense that they define the same behavior. It is further shown that the trajectories of such linear differential systems can be partitioned in free inputs and bound outputs. In addition the memory structure of the system is analyzed through state space models. The second part of the book is devoted to a number of important system properties, notably controllability, observability, and stability. An essential feature of using the behavioral approach is that it allows these and similar concepts to be introduced in a representation-free manner. In the third part control problems are considered, more specifically stabilization and pole placement questions. This text is suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in mathematics and engineering. It contains numerous exercises, including simulation problems, and examples, notably of mechanical systems and electrical circuits.
Описание: Decision Theory An Introduction to Dynamic Programming and Sequential Decisions John Bather University of Sussex, UK Mathematical induction, and its use in solving optimization problems, is a topic of great interest with many applications.
Автор: Graham Priest Название: An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic ISBN: 0521854334 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780521854337 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 14643 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This revised and considerably expanded 2nd edition brings together a wide range of topics, including modal, tense, conditional, intuitionist, many-valued, paraconsistent, relevant, and fuzzy logics. Part 1, on propositional logic, is the old Introduction, but contains much new material. Part 2 is entirely new, and covers quantification and identity for all the logics in Part 1. The material is unified by the underlying theme of world semantics. All of the topics are explained clearly using devices such as tableau proofs, and their relation to current philosophical issues and debates are discussed. Students with a basic understanding of classical logic will find this book an invaluable introduction to an area that has become of central importance in both logic and philosophy. It will also interest people working in mathematics and computer science who wish to know about the area.
Автор: SchrГ¶der Bernd Название: Ordered Sets / An Introduction ISBN: 0817641289 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780817641283 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 8903 р. Наличие на складе: Нет в наличии.
Описание: This work is an introduction to the basic tools of the theory of (partially) ordered sets such as visualization via diagrams, subsets, homomorphisms, important order-theoretical constructions, and classes of ordered sets. Using a thematic approach, the author presents open or recently solved problems to motivate the development of constructions and investigations for new classes of ordered sets. A wide range of material is presented, from classical results such as Dilworth's, Szpilrajn's and Hashimoto's Theorems to more recent results such as the Li--Milner Structure Theorem. Major topics covered include: chains and antichains, lowest upper and greatest lower bounds, retractions, lattices, the dimension of ordered sets, interval orders, lexicographic sums, products, enumeration, algorithmic approaches and the role of algebraic topology. Since there are few prerequisites, the text can be used as a focused follow-up or companion to a first proof (set theory and relations) or graph theory class. After working through a comparatively lean core, the reader can choose from a diverse range of topics such as structure theory, enumeration or algorithmic aspects. Also presented are some key topics less customary to discrete mathematics/graph theory, including a concise introduction to homology for graphs, and the presentation of forward checking as a more efficient alternative to the standard backtracking algorithm. The coverage throughout provides a solid foundation upon which research can be started by a mathematically mature reader. Rich in exercises, illustrations, and open problems, Ordered Sets: An Introduction is an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students and a good resource for the interested researcher. Readers will discover order theory's role in discrete mathematics as a supplier of ideas as well as an attractive source of applications.
Автор: Mints Grigori Название: A Short Introduction to Intuitionistic Logic ISBN: 0306463946 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780306463945 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 17076 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic tchniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.
Автор: Peter Smith Название: An Introduction to G?del`s Theorems ISBN: 0521674530 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780521674539 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 3071 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: In 1931, the young Kurt G?del published his First Incompleteness Theorem, which tells us that, for any sufficiently rich theory of arithmetic, there are some arithmetical truths the theory cannot prove. This remarkable result is among the most intriguing (and most misunderstood) in logic. G?del also outlined an equally significant Second Incompleteness Theorem. How are these Theorems established, and why do they matter? Peter Smith answers these questions by presenting an unusual variety of proofs for the First Theorem, showing how to prove the Second Theorem, and exploring a family of related results (including some not easily available elsewhere). The formal explanations are interwoven with discussions of the wider significance of the two Theorems. This book will be accessible to philosophy students with a limited formal background. It is equally suitable for mathematics students taking a first course in mathematical logic.
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