Описание: Examines the state of the art for determining the "real" structure of matter. This book provides an analysis of the fundamental theory and techniques for microstructure analysis from diffraction patterns. It presents the principal characterization technique permitting us to measure the defect solid state: X-ray diffraction.
Описание: Over recent years the understanding of grain boundaries, interphase boundaries and free surfaces has advanced greatly, leading to a clear recognition that these discontinuities make a significant contribution to the physical and mechanical properties of materials from multiphametals and alloys to electronic materials. Grain Boundaries -Their Microstructure and Chemistry discusses the interrelationship between microstructure and chemistry of the grain boundary, with particular emphasis on the influence of the environment (air, liquid and liquid metal) and composition (bulk and impurity). This highly practical volume presents a brief background to interphase and grain boundaries, before considering in detail grain boundary composition and composition changes, and how grain boundary composition affects material properties. Very recent advances in techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe, and the facinating new insights into grain boundary, microstructure that they have revealed, are also discussed. Grain Boundaries - Their Microstructure and Chemistry is an indispensable text for design and safety engineers in many industries, including power and aerospace, as well as for materials scientists and engineers in academia and research institutes.
Описание: The mathematical theory of contact mechanics is a growing field in engineering and scientific computing. This book is intended as a unified and readily accessible source for mathematicians, applied mathematicians, mechanicians, engineers and scientists, as well as advanced students. The first part describes models of the processes involved like friction, heat generation and thermal effects, wear, adhesion and damage. The second part presents many mathematical models of practical interest and demonstrates the close interaction and cross-fertilization between contact mechanics and the theory of variational inequalities. The last part reviews further results, gives many references to current research and discusses open problems and future developments. The book can be read by mechanical engineers interested in applications. In addition, some theorems and their proofs are given as examples for the mathematical tools used in the models.
Описание: Variational inequalities provide the mathematical framework for a variety of nonlinear and non-smooth phenomena in science. This book covers such subjects as posteriori error analysis and convergence of adaptive finite element methods, the treatment of multigrid methods and multilevel methods with solution-dependent multilevel bases.
Описание: Diffraction Analysis of the Microstructure of Materials provides an overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.
Описание: Computational Methods for Microstructure-Property Relationships introduces state-of-the-art advances in computational modeling approaches for materials structure-property relations. Written with an approach that recognizes the necessity of the engineering computational mechanics framework, this volume provides balanced treatment of heterogeneous materials structures within the microstructural and component scales. Encompassing both computational mechanics and computational materials science disciplines, this volume offers an analysis of the current techniques and selected topics important to industry researchers, such as deformation, creep and fatigue of primarily metallic materials. Researchers, engineers and professionals involved with predicting performance and failure of materials will find Computational Methods for Microstructure-Property Relationships a valuable reference.
Описание: This work systematically discusses the modern theory of propagation and interaction of elastic waves in solids with microstructure. Mathematical models of
solids taking into account microstructure, geometrical and physical nonlinearity, damage media, interaction of deformation and magnetic field are obtained. Different wave effects
characteristic of solids with microstructure are studied.
The opportunity to use these effects in problems of ultrasonic testing of materials and devices of constructions is
Описание: Interesting and new specific results of current theoretical and experimental work in various fields at the frontier of particle scattering and X-ray diffraction are reviewed in this volume. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the microstructure of solids, crystals and liquids, both classically and quantum mechanically. This gives the reader essential insights into the dynamics and properties of these states of matter. The authors address students interested in the physics of quantum solids, crystallography and material science as well as physical chemistry and computational physics.
Описание: The main theme of this book is micromagnetism and microstructure as well as the analysis of the relations between characteristic properties of the hysteresis loop and microstructure. Also presented is an analysis of the role of microstructure in the fundamental magnetic properties (for example magnetorestriction or critical behaviour) of crystalline and amorphous alloys. The authors apply the theory of micromagnetism to all aspects of advanced magnetic materials including domain patterns and magnetization processes under the influence of defect structures. Coverage includes modern developments in computational micromagnetism and its application to spin structures of small particles and platelets. It will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in condensed matter, physics, electrical engineering and materials science, as well as to industrial researchers working in the electrotechnical and recording industry.
Описание: The book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern topics in nonlinear analysis with applications to various boundary value problems with discontinuous nonlinearities and nonsmooth constraints. Our framework includes multivalued elliptic problems with discontinuities, variational inequalities, hemivariational inequalities and evolution problems. In addition to the existence of solutions, a major part of the book is devoted to the study of different qualitative properties such as multiplicity, location, extremality, and stability. The treatment relies on variational methods, monotonicity principles, topological arguments and optimization techniques. The book is based on the authors' original results obtained in the last decade. A great deal of the material is published for the first time in this book and is organized in a unifying way. The book is self-contained. The abstract results are illustrated through various examples and applications.
Описание: This book includes a self-contained theory of inequality problems and their applications to unilateral mechanics. Fundamental theoretical results and related methods of analysis are discussed on various examples and applications in mechanics. The work can be seen as a book of applied nonlinear analysis entirely devoted to the study of inequality problems, i.e. variational inequalities and hemivariational inequalities in mathematical models and their corresponding applications to unilateral mechanics. It contains a systematic investigation of the interplay between theoretical results and concrete problems in mechanics. It is the first textbook including a comprehensive and systematic study of both elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic inequality models, dynamical unilateral systems and unilateral eigenvalues problems. The book is self-contained and it offers, for the first time, the possibility to learn about inequality models and to acquire the essence of the theory in a relatively short time.
ООО "Логосфера " Тел:+7(495) 980-12-10 www.logobook.ru