Understanding Radioactive Aerosols and Their Measurement, Schery S.D.
Автор: Hinds, William C. Название: Aerosol technology 2 ed. ISBN: 0471194107 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780471194101 Издательство: Wiley Рейтинг: Цена: 18134 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: `Aerosol Technology` is aimed at students and professionals who need to acquire a thorough working knowledge of modern aerosol theory and applications.
Автор: Massel Stanislaw R. Название: Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes ISBN: 0387366385 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780387366388 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 19532 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: The energy flow from the atmosphere to the ocean generates an aerodynamically rough ocean surface. If the energy flow is sufficiently strong, in some points of the surface, waves loose their stability and eventually break in the form of whitecaps of various scales. The turbulence associated with the breakers produce the aerosols in the form of jet and film drops from the bursting of air bubbles. The aerosol droplets transfer water vapour, heat, pollutants and bacteria through the air-water interface. They are easily transported by wind over large distances. In this way, marine aerosols influence the optical features of the atmosphere, which are of fundamental importance for the remote sensing of the surface and they play an important role in climate variations.The amount of marine aerosols rising from the sea surface depends on the coverage of the sea by breaking waves or whitecaps, and the rate of intensity of breaking. Much of the uncertainty in sea aerosols production and gas transfer arises from weaknesses in the parameterization of wave breaking and related processes.This book describes the mechanisms of wave breaking, based on the theoretical and experimental achievements published in literature as well as on the author's experience. Special attention is paid to selection of the wave breaking criteria, and to development of the wave breaking probability and estimation of the energy dissipation due to breaking.Secondly, the book examines the relationships between wave breaking and marine aerosol fluxes and gas transfer from the sea surface. In general, an amount of marine aerosol rising from the sea surface depends on the coverage of the sea by breaking waves or whitecaps, and on the rate of intensity of breaking. The wind speed, commonly used in prediction of the whitecaps coverage, is only one of the factors determining the wave energy and probability of the breaking occurrence. It is more appropriate to find the linkage between the percentage of sea surface covered by whitecaps and the sea state characteristics (i.e. the significant wave height and spectrum peak frequency) and the amount of energy dissipated during wave breaking and its relationship with the aerosol fluxes.
Описание: Springer/Praxis have a successful mini program of books on various aspects of light scattering, and now have a journal "Light Scattering Review" under consideration proposed by Alex Kokhanovsky. The atmospheric air contains not only gases but also various types of airborne particles (known as aerosols) ranging from dust grains to microbes. These small particles influence atmospheric visibility, the thermodynamics of the atmosphere, and they are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvest, health problems among humans and ecological disasters. Therefore, it is of great importance to study aerosol properties on a global scale. Such studies ultimately should be based on global observations using instruments positioned on the space platforms.
Автор: A. C. Chamberlain Название: Radioactive Aerosols ISBN: 0521612055 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780521612050 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 7477 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This book is about radioactive gases and particles which are dispersed in the environment, either from natural causes, or following nuclear test and accidental emissions. In the first five chapters of this book, the formation and properties of radioactive aerosols are described. Radon, which is of natural origin, is treated at some length, because its contribution to background radiation dose is important. Chapters describe the release of fission products, tritium and plutonium, in bomb tests and nuclear accidents. Particular reference is made to the pathways leading via agricultural products to man. The emphasis then changes to cover experimental aspects of radioactive aerosols. For example, problems in micrometeorology, the study of mass transfer, the mechanics of the human lung and uptake of lead from motor exhausts. Arthur Chamberlain has worked at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell for thirty years as the leader of the Aerosol Group. It is a unique exposition and will be used by chemists, geographers, environmentalists as well as governments and other agencies involved in the nuclear debate.
Описание: `Containment of High Level Radioactive and Hazardous Solid Wastes with Clay Barriers`.
Автор: W. R. Alexander Название: Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste,9 ISBN: 0080450105 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780080450100 Издательство: Elsevier Science Рейтинг: Цена: 17765 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste presents a critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic: providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved and with extensive references to sources of more detailed information. Emphasis is very much on “deep” geological disposal – at least some tens of metres below land surface and, in many cases, many hundred of metres deep. Additionally, only radioactive wastes are considered directly – even though such wastes often contain also significant chemotoxic or otherwise hazardous components. Many of the principles involved are generally applicable to other repository options (e.g. near-surface or on-surface disposal) and, indeed, to other types of hazardous waste.
Описание: Safe and Secure Transport and Storage of Radioactive Materials reviews best practice and emerging techniques in this area. The transport of radioactive materials is an essential operation in the nuclear industry, without which the generation of nuclear power would not be possible. Radioactive materials also often need to be stored pending use, treatment, or disposal. Given the nature of radioactive materials, it is paramount that transport and storage methods are both safe and secure. A vital guide for managers and general managers in the nuclear power and transport industries, this book covers topics including package design, safety, security, mechanical performance, radiation protection and shielding, thermal performance, uranium ore, fresh fuel, uranium hexafluoride, MOX, plutonium, and more.
Описание: Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR.Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry.
Описание: The reports presented here discuss: General estimation of the radioactive contamination of the territories and radiation hazardous objects, including former military test sites, areas influenced due to Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, and territories of oil fields; Techniques and procedures of radioecological monitoring; Techniques of determining radionuclide concentrations and species in the environment. The cross-border transport of radionuclides between Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan by the waterways of Central Asia is discussed and a number of cases are described where the redistribution and accumulation of the natural radionuclides resulted in dangerous radioecological situations. This book also provides a strong foundation on which to build further multilateral programmes that can enhance understanding and cooperation in addressing the issues surrounding the sites where nuclear weapons were once tested.
Описание: Human exposure to aerosols, through inhalation or in working or ambient environments, may lead to a wide range of adverse health effects, including lung disease and other conditions resulting from toxic materials in the body.
Описание: Aerosols play a critical role in a broad range of scientific disciplines, such as atmospheric chemistry and physics, combustion science, drug delivery and human health. This thesis explores the fundamentals of a new technique for capturing single or multiple particles using light, and for characterising these particles by Raman or fluorescence spectroscopy. The outcome of this research represents a significant development in optical manipulation techniques, specifically in optical tweezing. These findings can be applied to studies of the mass accommodation of gas-phase water molecules adsorbing onto a water surface. Not only is this a fundamental process of interest to physical chemists, but it is important for understanding the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, including their ability to become cloud droplets. This new strategy for investigating aerosol dynamics is fundamental in helping us understand the indirect effect of aerosols on the climate.
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