Описание: Moral Realism is a systematic defence of the idea that there are objective moral standards. Russ Shafer-Landau argues that there are moral principles that are true independently of what anyone, anywhere, happens to think of them. His central thesis, as well as the many novel supporting arguments used to defend it, will spark much controversy among those concerned with the foundations of ethics.

Автор: Silverman, Richard A. Название: Essential Calculus with Applications ISBN: 0486660974 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780486660974 Издательство: Dover Рейтинг: Цена: 2138 р. Наличие на складе: Нет в наличии.

Описание: Calculus is an extremely powerful tool for solving a host of practical problems in fields as diverse as physics, biology, and economics, to mention just a few. In this rigorous but accessible text, a noted mathematician introduces undergraduate-level students to the problem-solving techniques that make a working knowledge of calculus indispensable for any mathematician. The author first applies the necessary mathematical background, including sets, inequalities, absolute value, mathematical induction, and other "precalculus" material. Chapter Two begins the actual study of differential calculus with a discussion of the key concept of function, and a thorough treatment of derivatives and limits. In Chapter Three differentiation is used as a tool; among the topics covered here are velocity, continuous and differentiable functions, the indefinite integral, local extrema, and concrete optimization problems. Chapter Four treats integral calculus, employing the standard definition of the Riemann integral, and deals with the mean value theorem for integrals, the main techniques of integration, and improper integrals. Chapter Five offers a brief introduction to differential equations and their applications, including problems of growth, decay, and motion. The final chapter is devoted to the differential calculus of functions of several variables. Numerous problems and answers, and a newly added section of "Supplementary Hints and Answers," enable the student to test his grasp of the material before going on. Concise and well written, this text is ideal as a primary text or as a refresher for anyone wishing to review the fundamentals of this crucial discipline.

Автор: Curry Haskell B. Название: Foundations of Mathematical Logic ISBN: 0486634620 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780486634623 Издательство: Dover Рейтинг: Цена: 3344 р. Наличие на складе: Невозможна поставка.

Описание: This book is a thoroughly documented and comprehensive account of the constructive theory of the first-order predicate calculus. This is a calculus that is central to modern mathematical logic and important for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists whose work impinges upon logic. Professor Curry begins by asking a simple question: What is mathematical logic? If we can define logic as "the analysis and criticism of thought" (W. E. Johnson), then mathematical logic is, according to Curry, "a branch of mathematics which has much the same relation to the analysis and criticism of thought as geometry does to the science of space." The first half of the book gives the basic principles and outlines of the field. After a general introduction to the subject, the author discusses formal methods including algorithms and epitheory. A brief treatment of the Markov treatment of algorithms is included here. The elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems are then covered. In the second half of the book Curry investigates the possibility for a formulation that expresses the meaning to be attached to the logical connectives and to develop the properties that follow from the assumptions so motivated. The author covers positive connectives: implication, conjunction, and alternation. He then goes on to negation and quantification, and concludes with modal operations. Extensive use is made in these latter chapters of the work of Gentzen. Lists of exercises are included. Haskell B. Curry, Evan Pugh Research Professor, Emeritus, at Pennsylvania State University, was a member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton; a former Director of the Institute for Foundational Research, the University of Amsterdam; and President of the Association for Symbolic Logic. His book avoids a doctrinaire stance, presenting various interpretations of logical systems, and offers philosophical and reflective as well as mathematical perspectives.

Автор: Whitesitt J. Eldon Название: Boolean Algebra and Its Applications ISBN: 0486477673 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780486477671 Издательство: Dover Рейтинг: Цена: 1602 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.

Описание: This introduction toBoolean algebra explores the subject on a level accessible even to those with a modest background in mathematics. The first chapter presents the algebra of sets from an intuitive point of view, followed by a formal presentation in chapter two of Boolean algebra as an abstract algebraic system, with no reference to applications. Succeeding chapters offer concise accounts of applications to symbolic logic, focusing on topics of logic common to elementary mathematics and discussing concepts of valid argument and indirect proofs. Additional topics include the algebra of circuits switching, relay, and computer as well as the application of the algebra of sets to probability theory. Problems appear throughout the text, with answers to selected problems at the end of the book. Geared toward students of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering, this text can be appreciated by anyone who understands college-level mathematics. It will prove particularly valuable to philosophy students and others wishing to study symbolic logic and its applications to computer science."

Автор: Reiss, Howard Название: Methods of Thermodynamics ISBN: 0486694453 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780486694450 Издательство: Dover Рейтинг: Цена: 2004 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.

Описание:

Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of "constraints" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment. Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical mechanics as a crutch to explain the subject. In the author's view, the student should learn to use the method of themodynamics in all its power, applying it to any problem it may help solve. As the author states: "In view of the high level of confidence which we place in thermodynamics, what is known thermodynamically is often considered to be known once and for all...by restricting oneself initially to purely thermodynamic arguments, one can know what he does know before entering domains where conclusions are less certain." Major chapter headings in this volume include: mathematical apparatus, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law and entropy, ideal substances, some useful formulas, internal equilibrium, and the extremal properties of the entropy, thermodynamic potentials, phase equilibria in simple systems, osmotic systems, systems which may perform surface work, systems in gravitational and centrifugal fields, elastic systems, stability, and third law. 1965 edition.

Автор: Schrodinger, Erwin Название: Statistical Thermodynamics ISBN: 0486661016 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780486661018 Издательство: Dover Рейтинг: Цена: 1333 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.

Описание: In this concise volume, one of the founder of quantum mechanics and one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the century (Nobel laureate, 1933) attempts to develop a simple, unified standard method of dealing with all cases of statistical thermodynamics (classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, etc.) The level of discussion is relatively advanced. As Professor Schrodinger remarks in the Introduction: "It is not a first introduction for newcomers to the subject, but rather a 'repetitorium.' The treatment of those topics which are to be found in every one of a hundred text-books is severely condensed; on the other hand, vital points which are usually passed over in all but the large monographs (such as Fowler's and Tolman's) are dealt with at greater level."

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