Автор: Dov M. Gabbay Название: General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues, ISBN: 0444515488 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780444515483 Издательство: Elsevier Science Рейтинг: Цена: 17243 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psil
Автор: Nachtomy Ohad, Smith Justin E. H. Название: The Life Sciences in Early Modern Philosophy ISBN: 0199987319 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780199987313 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 8881 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This volume explores the intersection between early modern philosophy and the life sciences by presenting the contributions of important but often neglected figures such as Cudworth, Grew, Glisson, Hieronymus Fabricius, Stahl, Gallego, Hartsoeker, and More, as well as familiar figures such as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Malebranche, and Kant.
In the 1980s, philosophical, historical and social studies of science underwent a change which later evolved into a turn to practice. Analysts of science were asked to pay attention to scientific practices in meticulous detail and along multiple dimensions, including the material, social and psychological. Following this turn, the interest in scientific practices continued to increase and had an indelible influence in the various fields of science studies. No doubt, the practice turn changed our conceptions and approaches of science, but what did it really teach us? What does it mean to study scientific practices? What are the general lessons, implications, and new challenges?
This volume explores questions about the practice turn using both case studies and theoretical analysis. The case studies examine empirical and mathematical sciences, including the engineering sciences. The volume promotes interactions between acknowledged experts from different, often thought of as conflicting, orientations. It presents contributions in conjunction with critical commentaries that put the theses and assumptions of the former in perspective. Overall, the book offers a unique and diverse range of perspectives on the meanings, methods, lessons, and challenges associated with the practice turn.
Автор: Barker, Gillian; Kitcher, Philip Название: Philosophy of Science ISBN: 0195366190 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780195366198 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 2530 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Offering an engaging and accessible portrait of the current state of the field, Philosophy of Science: A New Introduction shows students how to think philosophically about science and why it is both essential and fascinating to do so. Gillian Barker and Philip Kitcher reconsider the core questions in philosophy of science in light of the multitude of changes that have taken place in the decades since the publication of C.G. Hempel's classic work, Philosophy of Natural Science (1966)--both in the field and also in history and sociology of science and the sciences themselves. They explore how philosophical questions are connected to vigorous current debates--including climate change, science and religion, race, intellectual property rights, and medical research priorities--showing how these questions, and philosophers' attempts to answer them, matter in the real world. Featuring numerous illustrative examples and extensive further reading lists, Philosophy of Science: A New Introduction is ideal for courses in philosophy of science, history and philosophy of science, and epistemology/theory of knowledge. It is also compelling and illuminating reading for scientists, science students, and anyone interested in the natural sciences and in their place in global society today.
Автор: Scharff Robert C. Название: Philosophy of Technology ISBN: 111854725X ISBN-13(EAN): 9781118547250 Издательство: Wiley Рейтинг: Цена: 6584 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: The new edition of this authoritative introduction to the philosophy of technology includes recent developments in the subject, while retaining the range and depth of its selection of seminal contributions and its much-admired editorial commentary.
Автор: Callender Название: Philosophy of Time (Pb) ISBN: 019967955X ISBN-13(EAN): 9780199679553 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 3451 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This is the first comprehensive book on the philosophy of time. Leading philosophers discuss the metaphysics of time, our experience and representation of time, the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially quantum mechanics and relativity theory.
Автор: Childers Timothy Название: Philosophy and Probability ISBN: 0199661839 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780199661831 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 1839 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Probability is increasingly important for our understanding of the world. What is probability? How do we model it, and how do we use it? Timothy Childers presents a lively introduction to the foundations of probability and to philosophical issues it raises. He keeps technicalities to a minimum, and assumes no prior knowledge of the subject.
Описание: Examines how advances in philosophy were led by scientific discoveries - the more humankind understood about the physical world, the more curious we became. Drawing on work by Descartes, Galileo, Hume, Kant, Leibniz, and Newton, this book helps readers understand science through the lens of philosophy.
Описание: Over a career that spans nearly fifty years, Roald Hoffmann has thought and written copiously about the broader context of chemistry and its relationship to philosophy and poetry. This book gathers together for the first time his most significant contributions, organized around several important themes to emphasize the principal ideas and insights.
Описание: What sets the practice of rigorously tested, sound science apart from pseudoscience? This title seeks to answer this question, known to philosophers of science as "the demarcation problem."
Автор: Okasha Название: Philosophy of Science ISBN: 0192802836 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780192802835 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 919 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Provides an overview of the main themes of contemporary philosophy of science. Beginning with a short history of science, this book goes on to investigate the nature of scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, revolutions in science, and theories, such as realism and anti-realism. It also looks at philosophical issues in particular sciences.
Автор: Curtright Daniela M Название: Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science ISBN: 082296273X ISBN-13(EAN): 9780822962731 Издательство: Eurospan Рейтинг: Цена: 5509 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Scientists have used models for hundreds of years as a means of describing phenomena and as a basis for further analogy. In Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science, Daniela Bailer-Jones assembles an original and comprehensive philosophical analysis of how models have been used and interpreted in both historical and contemporary contexts. Bailer-Jones delineates the many forms models can take (ranging from equations to animals; from physical objects to theoretical constructs), and how they are put to use. She examines early mechanical models employed by nineteenth-century physicists such as Kelvin and Maxwell, describes their roots in the mathematical principles of Newton and others, and compares them to contemporary mechanistic approaches. Bailer-Jones then views the use of analogy in the late nineteenth century as a means of understanding models and to link different branches of science. She reveals how analogies can also be models themselves, or can help to create them. The first half of the twentieth century saw little mention of models in the literature of logical empiricism. Focusing primarily on theory, logical empiricists believed that models were of temporary importance, flawed, and awaiting correction. The later contesting of logical empiricism, particularly the hypothetico-deductive account of theories, by philosophers such as Mary Hesse, sparked a renewed interest in the importance of models during the 1950s that continues to this day. Bailer-Jones analyses subsequent propositions of: models as metaphors; Kuhn's concept of a paradigm; the Semantic View of theories; and the case study approaches of Cartwright and Morrison, among others. She then engages current debates on topics such as phenomena versus data, the distinctions between models and theories, the concepts of representation and realism, and the discerning of falsities in models.
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