Описание: While probabilistic logics in principle might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied - perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. This programmatic book argues that several approaches to probabilistic logic fit into a simple unifying framework in which logically complex evidence is used to associate probability intervals or probabilities with sentences. Specifically, Part I shows that there is a natural way to present a question posed in probabilistic logic, and that various inferential procedures provide semantics for that question, while Part II shows that there is the potential to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework. The book is intended for researchers in philosophy, logic, computer science and statistics. A familiarity with mathematical concepts and notation is presumed, but no advanced knowledge of logic or probability theory is required.
Автор: Paoli F. Название: Substructural Logics: A Primer ISBN: 1402006055 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781402006050 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 28956 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Preface. Part I: The philosophy of substructural logics. 1. The role of structural rules in sequent calculi. Part II: The proof theory of substructural logics. 2. Basic proof systems for substructural logics. 3. Cut elimination and the decision problem. 4. Other formalisms. Part III: The algebra of substructural logics. 5. Algebraic structures. 6. Algebraic semantics. 7. Relational semantics. Appendix A: Basic glossary of algebra and graph theory. Appendix B: Other substructural logics. Bibliography. Index of subjects.
Автор: Czelakowski J. Название: Protoalgebraic Logics ISBN: 0792369408 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780792369400 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 26723 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Introduction. On the book. Mathematical Prerequisites. Exercises. Notes for Mathematical Prerquisites. 0. Basic definitions and facts. Part I: Protoalgebraic Logics. The Leibniz Operator. 1. Protoalgebraic logics. 2. Protoalgebraicity and the Deduction Theorem. 3. Equivalential logics. Part II: Algebraizable Sentential Logics. Q. Quasivarieties of algebras. 4. Algebraizable logics. 5. Regularly algebraizable logics. 6. Fregean logics. Bibliography. Symbol Index. Index of definitions.
Автор: Garson Название: What Logics Mean ISBN: 1107611962 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781107611962 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 4337 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: What do the rules of logic say about the meanings of the symbols they govern? In this book, James W. Garson examines the inferential behaviour of logical connectives (such as 'and', 'or', 'not' and 'if … then'), whose behaviour is defined by strict rules, and proves definitive results concerning exactly what those rules express about connective truth conditions. He explores the ways in which, depending on circumstances, a system of rules may provide no interpretation of a connective at all, or the interpretation we ordinarily expect for it, or an unfamiliar or novel interpretation. He also shows how the novel interpretations thus generated may be used to help analyse philosophical problems such as vagueness and the open future. His book will be valuable for graduates and specialists in logic, philosophy of logic, and philosophy of language.
Автор: Dov M. Gabbay; Karl Schlechta Название: A New Perspective on Nonmonotonic Logics ISBN: 3319468154 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783319468150 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 16334 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: In this book the authors present new results on interpolation for nonmonotonic logics, abstract (function) independence, the Talmudic Kal Vachomer rule, and an equational solution of contrary-to-duty obligations. The chapter on formal construction is the conceptual core of the book, where the authors combine the ideas of several types of nonmonotonic logics and their analysis of 'natural' concepts into a formal logic, a special preferential construction that combines formal clarity with the intuitive advantages of Reiter defaults, defeasible inheritance, theory revision, and epistemic considerations.It is suitable for researchers in the area of computer science and mathematical logic.
Описание: This text centers around three main subjects. The first is the concept of modularity and independence in classical logic and nonmonotonic and other nonclassical logic, and the consequences on syntactic and semantical interpolation and language change. In particular, we will show the connection between interpolation for nonmonotonic logic and manipulation of an abstract notion of size. Modularity is essentially the ability to put partial results achieved independently together for a global result. The second aspect of the book is the authors' uniform picture of conditionals, including many-valued logics and structures on the language elements themselves and on the truth value set. The third topic explained by the authors is neighbourhood semantics, their connection to independence, and their common points and differences for various logics, e.g., for defaults and deontic logic, for the limit version of preferential logics, and for general approximation. The book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in logic and theoretical computer science.
Автор: Johan van Benthem; Gerhard Heinzmann; Manuel Rebus Название: The Age of Alternative Logics ISBN: 9048124859 ISBN-13(EAN): 9789048124855 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 12918 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: In the last century, developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. This book embodies the multi-dimensional interplay between logic and science, presenting contributions from scholars on the trends and possible developments for research.
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