Building and operating distributed systems is fundamental to large-scale production infrastructure, but doing so in a scalable, reliable, and efficient way requires a lot of trial and error. In this collection of essays and articles, three Site Reliability Engineers from Google explain how the company has successfully navigated these waters over the past decade.
You ll learn how Google continuously deploys and monitors some of the largest software systems in the world, how it s Site Reliability Engineering team learns and improves after outages, and how they balance risk-taking vs reliability with error budgets."
Описание: Behavioral Intervals in Embedded Software introduces a comprehensive approach to timing, power, and communication analysis of embedded software processes. Embedded software timing, power and communication are typically not unique but occur in intervals which result from data dependent behavior, environment timing and target system properties.In system design, these intervals are used in many ways. In some cases, only the worst case is of interest, e.g. for single processor schedulability analysis, in another context both best and worst cases are relevant, such as for multiprocessor scheduling. In all these cases, these behavioral intervals of the individual software processes are fundamental data needed to analyze system behavior. With growing importance of embedded software, formal analysis of behavioral intervals has met increasing interest. Major contributions were the introduction of implicit path enumeration and the inclusion of cache analysis. While all approaches are conservative, i.e. all possible timing behavior (or communication, power consumption) is included in the resulting intervals, the main differences are in the architecture features that are covered by the hardware model and the width of the conservative interval. The closer this interval to the real timing bounds, the higher is the practical use of formal analysis.The current analysis techniques leverage on previous work in compiler technology by using basic blocks as elementary units for architecture modeling and path analysis. The work presented here opens a new direction moving from basic block based analysis to an analysis based on larger program segments with a single execution path. Such program segments frequently extend over many basic blocks, in particular in embedded system applications.The approach combines the generality and accuracy of formal analysis with the modeling precision of cycle true simulation without compromising formal completeness. The results show that with this combination of tracing and formal analysis both higher precision than previous approaches leading to tighter and more realistic intervals can be obtained and easier adaptation due to the use of standard off-the-shelf cache simulators, cycle-true processor models or evaluation boards is possible.Behavioral Intervals in Embedded Software will be a useful reference for academics as well as research scientists who are active in the field of Design Automation and Embedded Systems.
Автор: Edward Lamie Название: Real-Time Embedded Multithreading ISBN: 1578201349 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781578201341 Издательство: Taylor&Francis Рейтинг: Цена: 10344 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Helps you use the industry`s most popular RTOS/processor combination to develop embedded applications that are small, fast, reliable, and deterministic. Beginning with a discussion of embedded and real-time concepts and terminology, this book uses a specific demon.
Автор: Tim Wescott Название: Applied Control Theory for Embedded Systems, ISBN: 0750678399 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780750678391 Издательство: Elsevier Science Рейтинг: Цена: 9645 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Presenting mathematical background, this book provides practical application examples that can be used to design working systems. It offers a presentation of the basics of control theory as it pertains to an embedded environment. It also includes an accompanying CD-ROM which contains source code and real-world application examples.
Описание: The proliferation of embedded systems, and the corresponding new chip and chip set designs, have brought additional attention to storage units. Indeed, the heterogeneity of components and structures within embedded systems and the possibility of using application-specific storage systems has added a new dimension to memory system design. Moreover, new degrees of freedom have been opened since the introduction of embedded memory arrays in different technologies, such as SRAMs, DRAMs and EEPROMs and Flash, and their realization on the same silicon substate hosting processing units. Embedded systems are often designed under stringent energy consumption budgets, to limit heat generation and battery size. Since memory systems consume a significant amount of energy to store and to forward data, it is then imperative to balance power consumption and performance in memory system design. Contemporary system design focuses on the trade off between performance and energy consumption in processing and storage units, as well as in their interconnections. While memory design is as important as processor design in achieving the desired design objectives, the former topic has received less attention than the latter in the literature. Memory Design Techniques for Low Energy Embedded Systems centers one of the most outstanding problems in chip design for embedded application. It guides the reader through different memory organizations and technologies and it reviews the most successful strategies for optimizing them in the power and performance plane.
Описание: Continuing advances in chip technology, such as the ability to place more transistors on the same die (together with increased operating speeds) have opened new opportunities in embedded applications, breaking new ground in the domains of communication, multimedia, networking and entertainment. New consumer products, together with increased time-to-market pressures have created the need for rapid exploration tools to evaluate candidate architectures for System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. Such tools will facilitate the introduction of new products customized for the market and reduce the time-to-market for such products. While the cost of embedded systems was traditionally dominated by the circuit production costs, the burden has continuously shifted towards the design process, requiring a better design process, and faster turn-around time. In the context of programmable embedded systems, designers critically need the ability to explore rapidly the mapping of target applications to the complete system. Moreover, in today's embedded applications, memory represents a major bottleneck in terms of power, performance, and cost. In particular, Memory Architecture Exploration for Programmable Embedded Systems addresses efficient exploration of alternative memory architectures, assisted by a "compiler-in-the-loop" that allows effective matching of the target application to the processor-memory architecture. This new approach for memory architecture exploration replaces the traditional black-box view of the memory system and allows for aggressive co-optimization of the programmable processor together with a customized memory system. The book concludes with a set of experiments demonstrating the utility of this exploration approach. The authors perform architecture and compiler exploration for a set of large, real-life benchmarks, uncovering promising memory configurations from different perspectives, such as cost, performance and power. Moreover, the authors compare the Design Space Exploration heuristic with a brute force full simulation of the design space, to verify that the heuristic successfully follows a true pareto-like curve. Such an early exploration methodology can be used directly by design architects to quickly evaluate different design alternatives, and make confident design decisions based on quantitative figures. Memory Architecture Exploration for Programmable Embedded Systems is designed for different groups in the embedded systems-on-chip arena. First, the book is designed for researchers and graduate students interested in memory architecture exploration in the context of compiler-in-the-loop exploration for programmable embedded systems-on-chip. Second, the book is intended for embedded system designers who are interested in an early exploration methodology, where they can rapidly evaluate different design alternatives, and customize the architecture using system-level IP blocks, such as processor cores and memories. Third, the book can be used by CAD developers who wish to migrate from a hardware synthesis target to embedded systems containing processor cores and significant software components. CAD tool developers will be able to review basic concepts in memory architectures with relation to automatic compiler/simulator software toolkit retargeting. Finally, since the book presents a methodology for exploring and optimizing the memory configuration for embedded systems, it is intended for managers and system designers who may be interested in the emerging embedded system design methodologies for memory-intensive applications.
Описание: It is well known that embedded systems have to be implemented efficiently. This requires that processors optimized for certain application domains are used in embedded systems. Such an optimization requires a careful exploration of the design space, including a detailed study of cost/performance tradeoffs. In order to avoid time-consuming assembly language programming during design space exploration, compilers are needed. In order to analyze the effect of various software or hardware configurations on the performance, retargetable compilers are needed that can generate code for numerous different potential hardware configurations. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the fast developing area of retargetable compilers for embedded systems. It describes a large set important tools as well as applications of retargetable compilers at different levels in the design flow. Retargetable Compiler Technology for Embedded Systems is mostly self-contained and requires only fundamental knowledge in software and compiler design. It is intended to be a key reference for researchers and designers working on software, compilers, and processor optimization for embedded systems.
Описание: This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed postproceedings of the First International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, ICESS 2004, held in Hangzhou, China in December 2004.The 80 revised full papers presented together with the abstracts of 4 keynote speeches and 4 invited talks were thoroughly reviewed and selected from almost 400 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on distributed embedded computing, embedded systems, embedded hardware and architecture, middleware for embedded computing, mobile systems, transducer network, embedded operating system, power-aware computing, real-time system, embedded system verification and testing, and software tools for embedded systems.
Описание: Natural phenomena can be visually described with fractal-geometry methods, where iterative procedures rather than equations are used to model objects. With the development of better modelling algorithms, the efficiency of rendering, the realism of computer-generated scenes and the interactivity of visual stimuli are reaching astonishing levels. Iterated Function Systems for Real-Time Image Synthesis gives an explanation of iterated function systems and how to use them in generation of complex objects. Contents include: Discussion of the most popular fractal models applied in the field of image synthesis. Presentation of iterated function system models, including recent developments in IFS representation. Exploration of algorithms for creating and manipulating fractal objects, and techniques for implementing the algorithms. Use of practical examples to demonstrate the implementation and application of IFS models.The book contains both a description text and pseudo-code samples for the convenience of graphics application programmers.
Описание: The International Workshop on "Embedded Systems -- Modeling, Technology, and Applications" is the seventh in a successful series of workshops that were established by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Technische UniversitГ¤t Berlin. The goal of those workshops is to bring together researchers from both universities in order to present research results to an international community. Successfully realizing Embedded Systems requires methods and tools from different disciplines. Formal specification techniques not only for the embedded system itself but also for the device and environment that is controlled by the embedded system are used for functional and non-functional properties (e.g. performance, real-time behavior). Formal models allow analyzing and optimizing those properties. Different methods and tools are used to design the required behavior of the system and finally to implement and test the system. Aspects covered in this workshop are, among others,вЂў Models and specification вЂў Simulation of different properties вЂў Middleware for distributed real-time systems вЂў Signal Analysis вЂў Control methods вЂў Applications in airborne and medical systems.
Автор: Ganssle Название: Embedded Systems Dictionary ISBN: 1578201209 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781578201204 Издательство: Taylor&Francis Рейтинг: Цена: 7803 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Designed to serve both the technical and non-technical audience, this book defines advanced terms in two steps. This dictionary defines the 2,500 most-used
words in the embedded systems field, with over 4,500 entries and cross-references and a general, contextual definition for less technical readers, and an in-depth definition for serious
Описание: Due to the decreasing production costs of IT systems, applications that had to be realised as expensive PCBs formerly, can now be realised as a
system-on-chip. Furthermore, low cost broadband communication media for wide area communication as well as for the realisation of local distributed systems are available. Typically the
market requires IT systems that realise a set of specific features for the end user in a given environment, so called embedded systems.
Some examples for such embedded
systems are control systems in cars, airplanes, houses or plants, information and communication devices like digital TV, mobile phones or autonomous systems like service- or
edutainment robots.For the design of embedded systems the designer has to tackle three major aspects: the application itself including the man-machine interface, the (target)
architecture of the system including all functional and non-functional constraints and, the design methodology including modelling, specification, synthesis, test and validation. The last
two points are a major focus of this book. This book documents the high quality approaches and results that were presented at the International Workshop on Distributed and Parallel
Embedded Systems (DIPES 2000), which was sponsored by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP), and organised by IFIP working groups WG10.3, WG10.4 and
The workshop took place on October 18-19, 2000, in Schlob Eringerfeld near Paderborn, Germany."Architecture and Design of Distrib
ted Embedded Systems" is organised similar to the workshop. Chapters 1 and 4 (Methodology I and II) deal with different modelling and specification paradigms and the corresponding
design methodologies. Generic system architectures for different classes of embedded systems are presented in Chapter 2.
In Chapter 3, several design environments for the
support of specific design methodologies are presented. Problems concerning test and validation are discussed in Chapter 5. The last two chapters include distribution and
communication aspects (Chapter 6) and synthesis techniques for embedded systems (Chapter 7).
This book is essential reading for computer science researchers and
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