Описание: Offers an introduction to the theories and applications of the powder diffraction method for structure determination. This book emphasises on powder diffraction data collected using conventional x-ray sources, which remain primary tools for thousands of researchers and students in their daily experimental work.
Описание: Crystallography and diffraction are widely used throughout science for studying structure. However, many students find these subjects difficult. The aim of this book is to show, through relevant examples and without relying on complex mathematics, that the basic ideas behind crystallography and diffraction are simple and easily comprehensible.
Описание: Diffraction Analysis of the Microstructure of Materials provides an overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.
Описание: Designed for all those embarking on research which involves electron diffraction methods in physics, chemistry and geology, this volume contains information on EM imaging and diffraction contrast, disorder and defect scattering, electronic diffraction effects and identification of unknowns.
Описание: Examines the state of the art for determining the "real" structure of matter. This book provides an analysis of the fundamental theory and techniques for microstructure analysis from diffraction patterns. It presents the principal characterization technique permitting us to measure the defect solid state: X-ray diffraction.
Описание: Provides a comprehensive introduction to the topics of crystallography and diffraction for undergraduate and beginning graduate students and lecturers in physics, chemistry, materials and earth sciences. This book shows how crystal structures may be built up from simple ideas of atomic packing and co-ordination.
Описание: Our understanding of the properties of materials, from drugs and proteins to catalysts and ceramics, is almost always based on structural information. This book describes the developments in powder diffraction which make it possible for scientists to obtain such information. It is aimed at both novices and experienced practitioners.
Описание: Crystal structure analysis from powder diffraction data has attracted considerable and ever growing interest in the last decades. X-ray powder diffraction is best known for phase analysis (Hanawalt files) dating back to the 30s. In the late 60s the inherent potential of powder diffraction for crystallographic problems was realized and scientists developed methods for using powder diffraction data at first only for the refinement of crystal structures. With the development of ever growing computer power profile fitting and pattern decomposition allowed to extract individual intensities from overlapping diffraction peaks opening the way to many other applications, especially to ab initio structure determination. Powder diffraction today is used in X-ray and neutron diffraction, where it is a powerful method in neutron diffraction for the determination of magnetic structures. In the last decade the interest has dramatically improved. There is hardly any field of crystallography where the Rietveld, or full pattern method has not been tried with quantitative phase analysis the most important recent application.
Описание: A tribute to Paul Ewald, whose work "On the Foundations of Crystal Optics" has many modern applications. Contributions to this volume are both scientific and biographical, and five key papers by Ewald from 1913, 1968, 1969, 1979 and 1986 are included.
Автор: Waseda Название: X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography ISBN: 3642166342 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783642166341 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 14959 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.
Описание: Interesting and new specific results of current theoretical and experimental work in various fields at the frontier of particle scattering and X-ray diffraction are reviewed in this volume. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the microstructure of solids, crystals and liquids, both classically and quantum mechanically. This gives the reader essential insights into the dynamics and properties of these states of matter. The authors address students interested in the physics of quantum solids, crystallography and material science as well as physical chemistry and computational physics.
Описание: Three-dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a novel experimental method for structural characterisation of polycrystalline materials. The position, morphology, phase, strain and crystallographic orientation of hundreds of grains or sub-grain embedded within mm-cm thick specimens can be determined simultaneously. Furthermore, the dynamics of the individual structural elements can be monitored during typical processes such as deformation or annealing. The book gives a comprehensive account of the methodology followed by a summary of selected applications. The method is presented from a mathematical/crystallographic point-of-view but with sufficient hands-on details to enable the reader to plan his or her own experiments. The scope of applications includes work in materials science and engineering, geophysics, geology, chemistry and pharmaceutical science.
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