Описание: The relation between logic and knowledge has provoked a heated debate since the 1960s. This book presents the first work on the Realism-Antirealism debate in the Age of Alternative Logics, and shows the most recent developments in philosophical logic.
Описание: The relation between logic and knowledge has been at the heart of a lively debate since the 1960s. On the one hand, the epistemic approaches based their formal arguments in the mathematics of Brouwer and intuitionistic logic. Following Michael Dummett, they started to call themselves `antirealists'. Others persisted with the formal background of the Frege-Tarski tradition, where Cantorian set theory is linked via model theory to classical logic. Jaakko Hintikka tried to unify both traditions by means of what is now known as `explicit epistemic logic'. Under this view, epistemic contents are introduced into the object language as operators yielding propositions from propositions, rather than as metalogical constraints on the notion of inference.The Realism-Antirealism debate has thus had three players: classical logicians, intuitionists and explicit epistemic logicians. The editors of the present volume believe that in the age of Alternative Logics, where manifold developments in logic happen at a breathtaking pace, this debate should be revisited. Contributors to this volume happily took on this challenge and responded with new approaches to the debate from both the explicit and the implicit epistemic point of view.
Описание: Constraints provide a declarative way of representing infinite sets of data. They are well suited for combining different logical or programming paradigms as has been known for constraint logic programming since the 1980s and more recently for functional programming. The use of constraints in automated deduction is more recent and has proved to be very successful, moving the control from the meta-level to the constraints, which are now first-class objects.This monograph-like book presents six thoroughly reviewed and revised lectures given by leading researchers at the summer school organized by the ESPRIT CCL Working Group in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, in September 1999. The book offers coherently written chapters on constraints and constraint solving, constraint solving on terms, combining constraint solving, constraints and theorem proving, functional and constraint logic programming, and building industrial applications.
Описание: Aims to study the computational behaviour of many-dimensional modal logics. This book is concerned with providing a mathematical foundation for this discipline, and shows that different applied many-dimensional systems fit in with this theoretical framework, and so their computational behaviour can be analyzed using the developed machinery.
Автор: Rademaker Название: A Proof Theory for Description Logics ISBN: 144714001X ISBN-13(EAN): 9781447140016 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 4614 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Description Logics (DLs) is a family of formalisms used to represent knowledge of a domain. They are equipped with a formal logic-based semantics. Knowledge representation systems based on description logics provide various inference capabilities that deduce implicit knowledge from the explicitly represented knowledge.A Proof Theory for Description Logics introduces Sequent Calculi and Natural Deduction for some DLs (ALC, ALCQ). Cut-elimination and Normalization are proved for the calculi. The author argues that such systems can improve the extraction of computational content from DLs proofs for explanation purposes.
Описание: While probabilistic logics in principle might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied - perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. This programmatic book argues that several approaches to probabilistic logic fit into a simple unifying framework in which logically complex evidence is used to associate probability intervals or probabilities with sentences. Specifically, Part I shows that there is a natural way to present a question posed in probabilistic logic, and that various inferential procedures provide semantics for that question, while Part II shows that there is the potential to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework. The book is intended for researchers in philosophy, logic, computer science and statistics. A familiarity with mathematical concepts and notation is presumed, but no advanced knowledge of logic or probability theory is required.
Автор: George Metcalfe; Nicola Olivetti; Dov Gabbay Название: Proof Theory for Fuzzy Logics ISBN: 1402094086 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781402094088 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 16169 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Fuzzy logics are many-valued logics that are well suited to reasoning in the context of vagueness. This book focuses on the development and applications of `proof-theoretic` presentations of fuzzy logics.
Автор: Schechter, Eric Название: Classical and non-classical logics ISBN: 0691122792 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780691122793 Издательство: Wiley Рейтинг: Цена: 13750 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: In this book, the author introduces classical logic alongside constructive, relevant, comparative, and other nonclassical logics. It begins with brief introductions to informal set theory and general topology, and avoids advanced algebra; thus it is self-contained and suitable for readers with little background in mathematics.
Автор: Paoli F. Название: Substructural Logics: A Primer ISBN: 1402006055 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781402006050 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 22521 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Preface. Part I: The philosophy of substructural logics. 1. The role of structural rules in sequent calculi. Part II: The proof theory of substructural logics. 2. Basic proof systems for substructural logics. 3. Cut elimination and the decision problem. 4. Other formalisms. Part III: The algebra of substructural logics. 5. Algebraic structures. 6. Algebraic semantics. 7. Relational semantics. Appendix A: Basic glossary of algebra and graph theory. Appendix B: Other substructural logics. Bibliography. Index of subjects.
Автор: Glenn Название: Law and the New Logics ISBN: 1107106958 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781107106956 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 12872 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This book is unique in presenting an interdisciplinary conversation between jurists and logicians. It brings together scholars from both law and philosophy and looks at the application of 'the new logics' to law and legal ordering, in a number of legal systems. The first Part explores the ways in which the new logics shed light on the functioning of legal orders, including the structure of legal argumentation and the rules of evidence. The second addresses how non-classical logics can help us to understand the interactions between multiple legal orders, in a range of contexts including domestic and international law. The final Part examines particular issues in the applicability of non-classical logics to legal reasoning. This book will be of interest to jurisprudence and logic scholars and students who want to deepen their understanding of relationships between law and legal reasoning, and learn about recent developments in formal logic.
Автор: T. Atanassov Название: Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logics ISBN: 3319489526 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783319489520 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 13859 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Описание: This text centers around three main subjects. The first is the concept of modularity and independence in classical logic and nonmonotonic and other nonclassical logic, and the consequences on syntactic and semantical interpolation and language change. In particular, we will show the connection between interpolation for nonmonotonic logic and manipulation of an abstract notion of size. Modularity is essentially the ability to put partial results achieved independently together for a global result. The second aspect of the book is the authors' uniform picture of conditionals, including many-valued logics and structures on the language elements themselves and on the truth value set. The third topic explained by the authors is neighbourhood semantics, their connection to independence, and their common points and differences for various logics, e.g., for defaults and deontic logic, for the limit version of preferential logics, and for general approximation. The book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in logic and theoretical computer science.
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