Автор: Josephson Название: An Environmental History of Russia ISBN: 0521689724 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780521689724 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: от 2393 р. Наличие на складе: Есть (1 шт.) Описание: The former Soviet empire spanned eleven time zones and contained half the world's forests; vast deposits of oil, gas and coal; various ores; major rivers such as the Volga, Don and Angara; and extensive biodiversity. These resources and animals, as well as the people who lived in the former Soviet Union - Slavs, Armenians, Georgians, Azeris, Kazakhs and Tajiks, indigenous Nenets and Chukchi - were threatened by environmental degradation and extensive pollution. This environmental history of the former Soviet Union explores the impact that state economic development programs had on the environment. The authors consider the impact of Bolshevik ideology on the establishment of an extensive system of nature preserves, the effect of Stalinist practices of industrialization and collectivization on nature, and the rise of public involvement under Khrushchev and Brezhnev, and changes to policies and practices with the rise of Gorbachev and the break-up of the USSR.
Conceptual, empirical, and theoretical analyses of the effectiveness of market-based policy instruments in achieving environmental goals.
Economists argue that such market-based policy instruments as environmental taxes and emission trading systems are the best way to target the negative effects of pollution. Yet there is no agreement about whether the use of these instruments is sufficient, whether they are deployed efficiently, and which factors influence their effectiveness. Nor is it clear if such policies have had any significant effect on the urgent matter of climate change mitigation. This volume offers conceptual, empirical, and theoretical analyses of the effectiveness of these policy instruments in achieving environmental goals. Taken together, the chapters not only identify shortcomings of existing policy making, but also point to ways in which more effective policy design can help solve one of the most pressing problems of our time.
The contributors consider such topics as theoretical approaches to address the failure of the free market to protect the environment, the influence of people's trust in their government on their willingness to accept higher environmental taxes, political determinants of fossil fuel pricing, a game theoretic approach to understanding domestic political constraints on international environmental agreements, and intergenerational equity and carbon taxation.
Contributors Elisa Belfiori, Frank J. Convery, Peter Egger, Denny Ellerman, Dominic Hauck, Philipp Hieronymi, Andrea Kollmann, Sonja Koke, Andreas Lange, Antony Millner, Francesco Nicolli, Sergey Nigai, Johannes Reichl, David Schuller, Jon Strand, Cees van Beers, Francesco Vona
Описание: Putting a price tag on the environment is controversial. This book discusses ethical and political aspects of environmental cost-benefit analysis: why controversies must be expected, why they should be taken seriously, and how they can be handled in practice. Cost-benefit analysis is commonly thought of as a method for ranking projects according to their contributions to social welfare. The starting point of the present book is different. Rather than providing a final ranking, the purpose of a project analysis is to enable participants in a democratic decision-making process to make their own well-founded rankings of projects, according to their own normative views. Since ethical and political views differ, the analysis should be useful as factual background for any reasonable social welfare judgement. This purpose faces the analyst with quite different challenges than the purpose of ranking projects. The argument of the book is based on economic theory, but with a strong emphasis on readability and applicability. It is aimed at those – economists and non-economists alike – who use or are faced with cost-benefit analysis and environmental valuation in their work: politicians, employees of ministries and regulatory agencies, students, journalists, consultants and researchers. No particular prior knowledge of economics is required.
Описание: During the past three decades of rapid industrial growth, China has suffered from devastating environmental degradation. Most scholarly and popular publications have painted a rather pessimistic picture about the worrisome trend. Yet a somewhat more optimistic view has emerged in the past decade given the Chinese government’s increased commitment to fighting industrial pollution, the public’s increased concerns regarding the adverse effects of pollution, and domestic and international civil society’s increased involvement in promoting environmental protection in China. Drawing on the authors’ extensive research on Guangdong Province and a few large cities in other provinces, this book provides an in-depth study on China’s environmental governance and regulatory enforcement in the past two decades. Section 1 examines various institutional constraints for environmental regulation enforcement at the local level and how governance reform efforts in the past decade have contributed to the lessening of those constraints. Section 2 draws on data derived from surveys and interviews conducted in multiple cities and times; it examines the dominant regulatory enforcement styles of local environmental protection bureaus and how these styles vary across different regions and over time. Section 3 examines how various stakeholders—the general public, environmental groups, government entities, and corporations—affect the environmental governance process. Overall, the book presents a cautiously optimistic view on the evolution of environmental governance in China. While highlighting many political, institutional, social, and economic constraints, it also documents many changes that have taken place—including reform efforts from within the government administrative system, increasingly societal concerns and actions, and changing attitudes among corporate executives—potentially paving the way for more effective environmental governance in the future.
Описание: This book provides a comparative study of the role of international organizations in environmental governance. Whilst a growing body of literature considers global governance in a number of policy areas, this volume delivers one of the first comprehensive accounts of international organizations in relation to environmental policy. Providing the reader with key insights within this area of global governance, the book focuses on policies developing in relation to climate change, biodiversity and international environmental funding. Presenting a compelling and up-to-date account of developments within this burgeoning policy area, the volume: • includes a range of case studies including the World Bank, UNEP and the OECD • presents quantitative and qualitative research that advances understanding of international organizations in the field of international relations • delivers contributions from a range of internationally renowned academics and specialists within the field International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance will be of interest to students and scholars of international relations theory, international economics, environmental policy, organizational theory and environmental studies.
Описание: First written in 1977, Economics of Natural and Environmental Resources presents a collection of articles written in exploration of the economic, social, and ecological problems peculiar to natural and environmental resources. Whilst focusing on the economic theory of natural resources, the contributions also consider geological, technological, and institutional features of particular resources. Policy implications and considerations are central to the text and although the book was published over thirty years ago, the issues discussed remainrelevant to today’s society.
Описание: For decades, social scientists have searched for factors that shape pro-environmentalbehaviour. However, only a few studies have investigated the causes andconsequences of participation in environmental organizations. This book fills the gap by analysing in detail the determinants of environmental participation and its consequences in different parts of the world. Benno Torgler, Maria A. Garcia-Valinas and Alison Macintyre seek the answer to several questions regarding who is working towards positive outcomes for our environment, what sort of social and institutional context will assist voluntary participation, what sort of attitudes are related to positive environmental behavior, and which countries are active on the intergovernmental stage. By focusing on voluntary participation in environmental organizations, we are able to determine the level of willingness to work towards a solution for environmental problems. This allows an insight into the motivations and attitudes of individuals and nations and how these factors can affect environmental cooperation. ? Participation in Environmental Organizations sheds light on who is liable to participate and will help to see whose priorities and values are forwarded through voluntary activities and to what extent voluntary participation can become representative. Thus, the book provides a unique examination of citizens’ willingness to participate in environmental organizations. The book will be of interest to Economics students and researchers alike who seek a deeper understanding of the theory and practice of environmental participation.
Описание: The changing economic environment for the consumer that is emerging from the wreckage of the financial credit crunch plays directly into the importance of food spending. This is certainly true from the perspective of food prices in the short run, but also from the perspective of sustainability and reducing the impact of the environmental credit crunch. The economic changes we experience now have a bearing on our ability to manage the environmental credit crunch that looms. Food Policy and the Environmental Credit Crunch: From Soup to Nuts elaborates on the issues addressed in the authors’ first book, From Red to Green?,and asks whether the financial credit crunch could ameliorate or exacerbate the emergent environmental credit crunch. The conclusion drawn here is that a significant and positive difference could be made by changing some of the ways in which we procure, prepare, and consume our food. Written by an economist and an investment professional, this book addresses the economic and environmental implications of how we treat food. The book examines each aspect of the ‘food chain’, from agriculture, to production and processing, retail, preparation, consumption and waste.
Автор: Squires Название: Urban and Environmental Economics ISBN: 0415619904 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780415619905 Издательство: Taylor&Francis Рейтинг: Цена: 13063 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: The importance of the built environment to environmental protection is well established, with strict environmental regulations now a feature of the working lives of planners, contractors, building designers, and quantity surveyors alike. Those new to, or preparing to join this industry must have an understanding of how their environmental responsibilities relate to their professional responsibilities in economic terms. Designed as an introductory textbook, Urban and Environmental Economics: An Introduction provides the background information from these disciplines to understand crucial tools and economic techniques. A broad range of theories of the natural and built environments and economics are explained, helping the reader develop a real understanding of the topics that influence this subject, such as: the history of economic thought on the built environment the economics of shared space in the built environment cost-benefit analysis and discounting macro-economic tools, measures, and policy sustainable development resource valuation. Illustrated throughout, and with lists of further reading in every chapter, this book is ideal for students at all levels who need to get to grips with the economics of the environment within a built environment context. Particularly useful to those studying planning, land economy, environmental management, or housing development.
Описание: Environmental Economics and Natural Resource Management continues to be the most user-friendly, practical textbook on the market. Full-color photos and illustrations serve as visual aids unmatched by rival texts and the book promotes environmental and economic literacy via policy-oriented, application-based content, delivered in a clear and concise manner.
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