Описание: Until 1973 few people, either in the advanced, industrial countries or in the developing countries of the Third World, thought seriously on the issues and complexities involved in the production and marketing of the oil on which they relied. It was only with the sudden steep increases in oil prices that the oil industry became a matter of general discussion, and the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) became a front page topic for analysis and comment. However, real understanding of the organisation and its policies did not accompany this rush of interest and much confusion has followed. In particular, the Arab exporters have received the weight of the criticism although they have only a share in the market and not a monopoly. This book attempts to instil a greater mutual understanding between oil exporters and importers, although it is not a wholesale endorsement of Arab policies, by outlining the major policy areas in this field. It looks at new policy options and their implications in exploration, marketing and pricing and at downstream operations such as the petrochemical and gas industries. In conclusion, this study identifies the wide-ranging opportunities that the new oil policies have opened up for the Arab countries, in the national, regional and international context, and assesses and clarifies the responsibilities which accompany this success. First published in 1983.
Автор: Golan Название: Soviet Policies in the Middle East ISBN: 0521358590 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780521358590 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 3954 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This is a comprehensive study of Soviet policies in the Middle East. Concentrating on policy developments, Professor Golan analyses the major Soviet decisions and objectives from the end of World War II to the Gorbachev era. She pays particular attention to the wars and crises of recent years and the often problematic development of political relationships in the region. Professor Golan begins by demonstrating how, until the end of the Brezhnev period, Soviet policies towards the Middle East were principally influenced by the demands of superpower competition with the USA. This is followed by a series of broadly chronological case studies of the main Soviet alliances, such as Syria and South Yemen; and of Sadat's Egypt and Khomeni's Iran. This original and important book culminates in a study of Gorbachev's interests, initiatives, and 'new thinking' in relation to overall Soviet foreign policy objectives and the role of the Soviet Union in the region.
Описание: This book explores the potential educational technologies have for transforming education in the Middle East. Although technology has increasingly become a part of classrooms around the globe over recent decades, its application in classrooms in the MENA region remains underused and this book draws on a case study from the Arabian Gulf to examine the beneficial impact technologies have on teaching and learning. The book identifies the many social and cultural pressures that prevent government technology policies to be implemented in the way that the international community would find recognisable and acceptable and how education policy from the Global North is transplanted into a separate context without considering the different requirements. The study seeks to address the ways in which educational technology policy in government schools plays a part in the enactment of education reforms and how government policy aspirations are played out in practice.
Автор: Akbarzadeh, Shahram Baxter, Kylie Название: US Foreign Policy in the Middle East ISBN: 0415410495 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780415410496 Издательство: Taylor&Francis Рейтинг: Цена: 3865 р. Наличие на складе: Невозможна поставка.
Описание: Over the years, Washington has been a major player in the politics of the Middle East. From Iran in the 1950s, to the Gulf War of 1991, to the devastation of contemporary Iraq, US policy has had a profound impact on the domestic affairs of the region. This book examines the interconnected nature of events in this geo-strategically vital region.
Описание: Yom argues that the durability of Middle Eastern regimes stems from their geopolitical origins. Based on comparative historical analyses of Iran, Jordan, and Kuwait, Yom examines the foreign interventions, coalitional choices, and state outcomes that characterize the modern Middle East. A key text for foreign policy scholars, From Resilience to Revolution shows how outside interference can corrupt the most basic choices of governance: who to reward, who to punish, who to compensate, and who to manipulate.
Описание: This book presents evaluation cases from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) context, investigating the various facets of evaluation in different parts of the MENA region and beyond. In 19 chapters, it explores cases from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Syria, the UAE, Turkey, Iran and Morocco.The book highlights the impact of evaluation on a range of stakeholders, arguing that it has repercussions at the individual, societal, economic, cultural and political levels, that it also has an ethical dimension, and that it is tailored to people’s needs, helping them to remain abreast of the effectiveness and efficiency of programs.Further, the book explores controversial issues concerning different evaluation themes, such as teacher and staff evaluation, assessment practices, text genre analysis evaluation, assessment of productive skills, textbook and ICT evaluation, evaluation of ELT certificates and programs, quality assurance, ESP needs analysis, assessment literacy, and dynamic assessment. It addresses key challenges, such as who the “right people” to implement evaluation are, and the appropriate use of evaluation results to avoid any misuse or harm to any stakeholder. In closing, the book calls for further research venues on the relevance of evaluation, testing and assessment in the MENA context and beyond.
Описание: In this volume, Bass takes readers inside the corridors of power to see the shaping of JFK's often surprising and often overlooked policies toward the Middle East and the Arab-Israel conflict.
Описание: On 31 July 1988 King Hussain of Jordan renounced all administrative and legal ties with the Israeli-occupied West Bank of the River Jordan, initiating a turning point in the Middle East peace process. In this study, Madiha Madfai explores Jordan’s role in the USA’s peacemaking efforts during the Carter, Reagan and Bush administrations. She examines the events culminating in the action of 1988 and convincingly demonstrates a history of anger, anguish and frustration with the Middle East peace process that lay behind the Jordanian decision. Dr Madfai also assesses the effects the American-Jordanian relationship had on stability in the Middle East.
Описание: In The Aftermath Of The Arab Spring, And In Light Of Socio-Economic And Geopolitical Challenges Facing Governments Old And New, Women'S Rights And Empowerment Have Gained New Urgency And Relevance. Groups In Power, Or Groups Contesting For Power, Are More Conservative Than Expected, And There Are Serious Threats To Roll Back Some Of The Gains Women Had Achieved Over The Past 20–30 Years On Economic And Social Fronts.The Global Gender Debate Has Neglected The Economic Dimension Of Women'S Empowerment And A Great Deal Of Debate And Interest Among Researchers Is Needed To Push The Topics Further. This Timely Book Brings Together Leading Regional Researchers To Offer Original Research Linking Gender Equality With Economic Policy, Reinforcing The Agenda From A Broad-Based Perspective.
Описание: As Egypt retreats from its newly elected government and Syria moves from one crisis to another, this book’s reflection on the Arab Spring could not be more timely. Monshipouri’s account of the role of emotion, solidarity, and online activism is informed by several trips to the region that continue to this day. The uprisings were fueled by a demographic surge of young people unable to find employment and frustrated by the lack of freedom, and now the elected regime has been ousted for failing to address these continuing circumstances. While modern technologies and social media may have brought new politics to the streets, organization on the ground trumps the enthusiasm of young protesters when it comes to shaping a country’s political future. How to turn elections into democracy in these post-conflict societies continues to be a daunting task, especially in countries with a longstanding history of military involvement in politics now experiencing a resurgence. This book addresses all of these subjects in an engaging and accessible narrative. <br><br><b>Key features of the text:</b>
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