Автор: Abdel Razik Ahmed Zidan, Mohammed Ahmed Abdel Hady Название: Constructed Subsurface Wetlands: Case Study and Modeling ISBN: 1771884630 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781771884631 Издательство: Taylor&Francis Рейтинг: Цена: 12128 р. Наличие на складе: Есть (1 шт.) Описание: With a sharp focus on environmental pollution and its impact on life and nature, scientists and engineers have studied the water treatment effect of natural wetlands for many years, resulting in the development of constructed wetlands (CWs) for treating wastewater. This informative new book provides current information and guidance on the construction, performance, operation, and maintenance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands of domestic and municipal wastewater. The focus of the volume is to evaluate the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in treating domestic wastewater to establish the limit that can be safely discharged to agricultural drains. Two-step procedures were used for the preparation of this book. Using modeling and statistical analyses of treated water samples showed a significant difference between different media for the treatment of most pollutants. The authors went on to design artificial neural network models (ANNs) using Matlab software to simulate some of the experimental data and to anticipate the parameters of output concentration. The wetland systems have the ability to deal with various pollutants with different concentrations and to decrease the treated water to the standard limits. This volume presents the main role of emergent plants for treatment performance in the constructed wetlands and will be a very important resource for engineers in this field as well as for both undergraduate and graduate students.
Автор: Turner Keith, Rosenbaum Michael Shaw Название: Subsurface Conditions ISBN: 3540437762 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783540437765 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 18809 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Characterisation of the shallow subsurface has gained in importance as civil and geotechnical engineering and environmental applications have become more dependent on a precise definition of geomechanical and geohydrological properties. A better understanding of the subsurface conditions offers wide-ranging benefits to governments, industry and individual citizens.Subsurface geological modelling became an economic and technologic reality in the late 1980's, when competing 3-D geoscientific information systems were the subject of considerable research and evaluation, especially by the petroleum exploration industry. Investigations in the shallow subsurface impose additional requirements that have only recently become technically and economically achievable. The very shallow urban underground environment, where many infrastructure and utilities elements are located, presents the most difficult characterisation problems.Subsurface modelling techniques have matured, along with modern data base concepts. The evolution of the Internet and Web-browser technologies has expanded information transmission and dissemination capabilities. Subsurface models are being integrated with decision-support systems to provide predictions of technical and economic performance. Yet even the most sophisticated of these models leave some uncertainty in geologic interpretation. A variety of techniques for assessing uncertainty have been developed and are being evaluated.
Автор: V.P. Singh; Bhishm Kumar Название: Subsurface-Water Hydrology ISBN: 940104175X ISBN-13(EAN): 9789401041751 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 17764 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Water is vital to life, maintenance of ecological balance, economic development, and sustenance of civilization. Growing population and expanding economic activities exert increasing demands on water for varied needs--domestic, industrial, agricultural, power generation, navigation, recreation, etc.
Описание: This book deals with the concept of moments, and how they find application in subsurface hydrologic problems-particularly those dealing with solute transport. Both temporal and spatial moments are dealt with in some detail for a wide variety of problems.
Автор: Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh Название: Computational Subsurface Hydrology ISBN: 0792372336 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780792372332 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 16602 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This text offers practising engineers and scientists a theoretical background, numerical methods, and computer codes for modelling contaminant transport in subsurface media. It also serves as a textbook for senior and graduate course on reactive chemical transport in subsurface media.
Fundamental conceptual understanding and practical applications for successful subsurface science and engineering of shale is lacking. This volume will bring together a series of chapters from recognized experts from industry, academia, private research institutions, and national laboratories compiling of a state-of-the-art of current science and engineering practices involving this most enigmatic of rock types. This will include a basic overview of shale heterogeneity from nanometers to kilometers, the basic science of coupled multiphysics modelling of shale rock in the subsurface (i.e. flow, transport, geochemistry, geomechanics), and engineering practices associated with shale oil and gas extraction, seal integrity for carbon and other waste storage, and other shale-containing natural resources. The existing state of knowledge on shales will be surveyed and relevant research needs in relation to subsurface engineering endeavors will be organized for the coming decades.
The timing has never been more opportune for a summary treatise on the subsurface science and engineering of shale; which is supported by several factors. New imaging techniques, including dual focused ion beam-scanning electron and neutron scattering methods, have emerged in the last five years that allow unprecedented internal three-dimensional views into shale pore network topologies and pore lining phases at previously unobtainable lengths scales (i.e. nanometers). Shales have always been considered as a major sealing lithology and source for oil and gas reservoirs. Inasmuch as these seals already existed for trapping hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon generation and migration was mostly ancient history, interest in shale specifically as an engineering target was never a priority for the oil and gas industry.
Industry was always more concerned with conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs that lie beneath the shales, and the shale formations themselves were mostly viewed as problematic from a drilling perspective and handled on a field-by-field basis. But recent occurrences have changed this perspective which is detailed in the key points below:
While shales were long-known reservoirs for oil and gas, and so-called hydrofracking was viable technology for reservoir stimulation since the 1950s, advances in horizontal drilling have only recently made extraction of oil and gas from shales economically viable--hence the shale gas "revolution."- Recent recognition of saline formations as a large potential reservoir for secure carbon sequestration brings the need for secure storage, and hence "caprocks" as sealing formations. Inasmuch as most saline formations are clastic reservoirs composed of sandstones, depositional predisposition led to shales as the dominant proposed caprock lithology. The question of storage security, and caprock integrity, for geologic carbon storage, is largely a question of shale performance assessment. Natural and induced fractures in caprock as potential leakage pathways is a difficult research topic from field, laboratory, and multi-physics reactive transport modeling perspectives, but key to regulatory and public acceptance of large-scale CO2 storage.
The "shelving" of Yucca Mountain as the geologic repository for US nuclear waste has led to a reconsideration of shale formations as such in the US. The recognition that shale formation pore-water overpressure, resulting from ice sheet compression, has persisted at least for 10,000 years is strong evidence for the sealing potential for these rock types on repository-requisite time scales. Shales are the dominant lithology considered for proposed European repositories.
Shales are under renewed scrutiny as hosts for light and heavy rare-earth elements. These are in high demand for aerospace and electronic industries and there is growing concern of a worldwide shortage. A newly released study by the US Geological Su
Автор: Taniguchi Название: Groundwater and Subsurface Environments ISBN: 4431539034 ISBN-13(EAN): 9784431539032 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 19532 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Excessive groundwater pumping, groundwater contamination, and subsurface thermal anomalies have occurred frequently in Asian coastal cities, greatly disturbing the urban aquifer and the subsurface environment. In this volume, the relationship between the stage of a city’s development and subsurface environment issues have been explored. Intensive field surveys were done in Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Bangkok, Jakarta, and Manila. New, advanced methods, including satellite, tracer techniques, and the social economy model, were developed to evaluate subsurface conditions. Groundwater storage and groundwater recharge rates, as well as the accumulation and transport of pollutants, have been compiled as integrated indices of natural capacities under climate and social changes, and used to evaluate the vulnerability risk for all cities. The indices have been made on a yearly basis for seven cities for a century (1900–2000). Using these indicators it is now possible to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable fashion. This volume is indispensable to researchers in hydrology, coastal oceanography, civil engineering, urban geography, social economy, climatology, geothermics, and urban management.
Автор: Yeh Gour-Tsyh Название: Computational Subsurface Hydrology ISBN: 0792384903 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780792384908 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 15625 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Offers practicing engineers and scientists a theoretical background, numerical methods, and computer codes for the modeling of fluid flows in subsurface media. This book presents a systematic derivation of governing equations and boundary conditions of subsurface fluid flow.
Описание: This is a handbook of practical techniques for making the best possible interpretation of geological structures at the map scale and for extracting the maximum amount of information from surface and subsurface maps. The 3-D structure is defined by internally consistent structure contour maps and cross sections of all horizons and faults. The book is directed toward the professional user who is concerned about both the accuracy of an interpretation and the speed with which it can be obtained from incomplete data. Quantitative methods are emphasized throughout, and numerous analytical solutions are given that can be easily implemented with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet. Interpretation strategies are defined for GIS or CAD users, yet are simple enough to be done by hand. The user of this book will be able to produce better geological maps and cross sections, judge the quality of existing maps, and locate and fix mapping errors.The second edition has been reorganized to more nearly follow the typical interpretation workflow. A significant amount of new material has been added, in particular numerous examples of 3-D models and techniques for using kinematic models to predict fault and ramp-anticline geometry. The new edition includes a CD which supplements the text in several ways. Text figures are reproduced in color and complete Tecplot models are provided for a number of representative figures. For those interested in working exercises in mapping software, xyz input files are provided in text format for many of the map-based exercises. Answers to selected exercises are included.
Автор: Bruno Yaron; Ishai Dror; Brian Berkowitz Название: Soil-Subsurface Change ISBN: 364244802X ISBN-13(EAN): 9783642448027 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 17578 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This book examines changes to the soil-subsurface matrix and properties caused by chemical pollution. It details the chemistry of contaminants that often disturb the natural soil-subsurface equilibrium as a result of human activity.
Автор: Vasco Название: Subsurface Fluid Flow and Imaging ISBN: 0521516331 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780521516334 Издательство: Cambridge Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 10927 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: This book introduces methodologies for subsurface imaging based upon asymptotic and trajectory-based methods for modeling fluid flow, transport and deformation. It describes trajectory-based imaging from its mathematical formulation, through the construction and solution of the imaging equations, to the assessment of the accuracy and resolution associated with the image. Unique in its approach, it provides a unified framework for the complete spectrum of physical phenomena from wave-like hyperbolic problems to diffusive parabolic problems and non-linear problems of mixed character. The practical aspects of imaging, particularly efficient and robust methods for updating high resolution geologic models using fluid flow, transport and geophysical data, are emphasized throughout the book. Complete with online software applications and examples that enable readers to gain hands-on experience, this volume is an invaluable resource for graduate-level courses, as well as for academic researchers and industry practitioners in the fields of geoscience, hydrology, and petroleum and environmental engineering.
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