Описание: This book reviews technological applications of aerosol science together with the current scientific status of aerosol modeling and measurements. The aim is to identify available current information on the effects of aerosols on human health.
Описание: Springer/Praxis have a successful mini program of books on various aspects of light scattering, and now have a journal "Light Scattering Review" under consideration proposed by Alex Kokhanovsky. The atmospheric air contains not only gases but also various types of airborne particles (known as aerosols) ranging from dust grains to microbes. These small particles influence atmospheric visibility, the thermodynamics of the atmosphere, and they are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvest, health problems among humans and ecological disasters. Therefore, it is of great importance to study aerosol properties on a global scale. Such studies ultimately should be based on global observations using instruments positioned on the space platforms.
Автор: Massel Stanislaw R. Название: Ocean Waves Breaking and Marine Aerosol Fluxes ISBN: 0387366385 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780387366388 Издательство: Springer Рейтинг: Цена: 17476 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: The energy flow from the atmosphere to the ocean generates an aerodynamically rough ocean surface. If the energy flow is sufficiently strong, in some points of the surface, waves loose their stability and eventually break in the form of whitecaps of various scales. The turbulence associated with the breakers produce the aerosols in the form of jet and film drops from the bursting of air bubbles. The aerosol droplets transfer water vapour, heat, pollutants and bacteria through the air-water interface. They are easily transported by wind over large distances. In this way, marine aerosols influence the optical features of the atmosphere, which are of fundamental importance for the remote sensing of the surface and they play an important role in climate variations.The amount of marine aerosols rising from the sea surface depends on the coverage of the sea by breaking waves or whitecaps, and the rate of intensity of breaking. Much of the uncertainty in sea aerosols production and gas transfer arises from weaknesses in the parameterization of wave breaking and related processes.This book describes the mechanisms of wave breaking, based on the theoretical and experimental achievements published in literature as well as on the author's experience. Special attention is paid to selection of the wave breaking criteria, and to development of the wave breaking probability and estimation of the energy dissipation due to breaking.Secondly, the book examines the relationships between wave breaking and marine aerosol fluxes and gas transfer from the sea surface. In general, an amount of marine aerosol rising from the sea surface depends on the coverage of the sea by breaking waves or whitecaps, and on the rate of intensity of breaking. The wind speed, commonly used in prediction of the whitecaps coverage, is only one of the factors determining the wave energy and probability of the breaking occurrence. It is more appropriate to find the linkage between the percentage of sea surface covered by whitecaps and the sea state characteristics (i.e. the significant wave height and spectrum peak frequency) and the amount of energy dissipated during wave breaking and its relationship with the aerosol fluxes.
Описание: This book is an introduction to radioactivity and aerosols for the scientifically literate reader with little or no previous exposure to either of these subjects. It provides a step-by-step introduction to radioactive aerosols from the physical science perspective, with coverage of such topics as indoor radon decay products, radioactive aerosols as tracers of atmospheric processes, indoor and outdoor models of aerosol transport, fallout from nuclear weapons and reactor accidents, and measurement of radioactivity and aerosols. Audience: Although it includes references to the research literature, it is not designed as a research monograph for specialists. Rather, it is directed at an interdisciplinary audience at the advanced undergraduate science level and higher who want an introductory, but rigorous, presentation of the core material of this subject. It is suitable for self study or for use as a main or supplemental textbook. It should be useful to a range of students in aerosol science, health physics, environmental science, nuclear engineering, and the atmospheric sciences. It should also be valuable to `crossover' professionals - professionals in other areas of science and engineering - who want a readable, self-contained introduction to radioactive aerosols. Many worked examples, and more than a hundred exercises and problems with answers, are provided.
Автор: Colbeck Название: Environmental Chemistry of Aerosols ISBN: 1405139196 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781405139199 Издательство: Wiley Рейтинг: Цена: 10131 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth`s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion and air quality. In urban environments, aerosol particles can affect human health through their inhalation. This title explains the state of knowledge of aerosol chemistry.
Описание: Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials —using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues.
Описание: Made from common salt and water, chlorine and its co-product, caustic soda, are two of the most basic building blocks used for a wide range of products valued by society. The Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology provides comprehensive and concise treatments of all aspects of technology and handling directly related to the products of electrolysis. A long-awaited comprehensive treatment, it covers the field from a history of the industry, through the fundamentals of thermodynamics and electrochemistry, to the treatment and disposal of the waste products of manufacture. While membrane cells are considered state-of-the-art, the handbook does not ignore mercury and diaphragm cells. They are considered both from a historical perspective and as examples of current technology that yet evolves. Special attention to paid to safe handling of the products, the obligations of Responsible CareВ®, and process safety management. Other major topics include corrosion, membranes, electrolyzer design, brine preparation and treatment, and the design and operation of processing facilities. The coverage of membranes is both fundamental and applied. The underlying transport processes and practical experience with existing types of membrane both are covered, as is electrolyzer design. The book explores the basic electrode processes and the fundamentals of current distribution in electrolyzers as well as the characteristics of the leading cell designs while the appendix offers selected physical property data. The authors, each with extensive experience in chlor-alkali technology but with diverse backgrounds and fields of specialization, achieve both breadth and depth. Anyone with interest in the large field of chlor-alkali manufacture and distribution, and indeed in industrial electrochemistry in general, will find something useful here. The Handbook offers not only broad coverage, but also in depth treatment of each topic. It will be an asset to managers, process engineers and operating personnel working in the chlor-alkali industry. This book provides valuable information to engineers and scientists involved in development of chlor-alkali technology and in the design of new plant or upgrading of existing plants. It will be especially valuable to universities as it begins with fundamentals and progresses methodically throu gh each step involved in chlor-alkali production, including environmental issues. from the Foreword by Barrie S. Gilliatt, Executive Director, Euro Chlor "Anyone with interest in the large field of chlor-alkali manufacture and distribution, and indeed in industrial electrochemistry in general, will find something useful here. The work is recommended to students; chlor-alkali technologists; electrochemists; engineers; and producers, shippers, packagers, distributors, and consumers of chlorine, caustic soda, and caustic potash. This book is thoroughly up to date and should become the standard reference in its field. "
Автор: Johnston, Keith P.; Penninger, Johannes M.L. Название: Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology (Hardback) ISBN: 0841216789 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780841216785 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 17694 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: Provides a detailed treatment of supercritical fluid science and technology from a broad perspective, from the molecular level to applied technology. Covers molecular interactions and structure; phase behavior, surfactants, gels, and polymers; chemical reactions; rate processes (crystallization, heat, and mass transfer); food, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications, and design of commercial plants. In addition, it is the first volume to address the uses of computer simulation to study some of the novel and unique properties of supercritical fluid solvents.
Автор: Clifford, Tony (Professor of Chemical Technology, Название: Fundamentals of Supercritical Fluids ISBN: 0198501374 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780198501374 Издательство: Oxford Academ Рейтинг: Цена: 7806 р. Наличие на складе: Есть у поставщика Поставка под заказ.
Описание: The purpose of this text is to explain the basic physical principles underlying the use of supercritical fluids. The relevant areas of physical chemistry are adapted to the context of supercritical fluids and attention is drawn to the special behaviour obtained in the medium.
Описание: A first compilation of research on microbial degradation of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The book discusses the interactions between microorganisms, plants and chemicals in the rhizosphere, examines the degradation of industrial chemicals
Автор: Kaneko Masao, Okura Ichiro Название: Photocatalysis / Science and Technology ISBN: 3540434739 ISBN-13(EAN): 9783540434733 Издательство: Springer Цена: 9813 р. Наличие на складе: Поставка под заказ.
Описание: The topic of photocatalysis is becoming increasingly important due to its essential role in many of today's environmental and energy-source problems. This book gives a comprehensive treatment of photocatalysis in three parts. The first part presents a brief introduction to the principles and fundamental aspects of photocatalysis including photoelectric chemical semiconductors. Part II describes applications to environmental cleaning, such as water purification and cleaning of the atmosphere. Part III discusses applications to photoenergy conversion, for example water decomposition with TiO2, semiconductors and metal complexes. Serving as a timely and convenient reference source including exciting new advances, the book will appeal to academic and industrial researchers as well as graduate and senior undergraduate students in the fields of photochemistry and photocatalysis.
Описание: Human exposure to aerosols, through inhalation or in working or ambient environments, may lead to a wide range of adverse health effects, including lung disease and other conditions resulting from toxic materials in the body.
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